Christine Nyiramana

Quality of Teacher Education

Experiences of Student Teachers vis-à-vis Teachers’ Feedback


This study focused on investigating the learning situation of student teachers especially their experiences on feedback they receive during their study time including teaching practice. It was conducted in Rwanda. The study was guided by the theories on educational quality which, on one side, places teacher education at the central position of ensuring effective teaching and learning process. In this line, effective training to make sure that teachers are taught in the same way they are expected to teach is essential. On the other side, feedback, which is an important element of the learning engine, is indicated necessary for ensuring that student teachers learn from a conducive environment. This study intended to answer the research question “How does teacher education look like regarding feedback in the Rwandan context?”. To answer this research question, the study was conceptualized as a qualitative research where semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 student teachers who have been selected using a theoretical sampling strategy from 13 Rwandan Higher Learning Institutions. Data collection was done in combination with data analysis to maximize all the qualities in the field.
Qualitative content analysis using intertwined deductive-inductive approach has been used for data analysis. With abduction process, a deep analysis of the empirical data led to the definition of criteria and then ideal types of feedback experienced by student teachers in Rwanda. With this analysis, three types of feedback namely administrative feedback, correctional feedback, and instructional feedback emerged. Further analysis showed that student teachers in Rwanda experience different forms of feedback. They have divergent understandings of feedback. Delayed feedback leads to increased uncertainty among students, communication of feedback creates different forms of relationships between student teachers and teacher educators. In addition, student teachers learn implicitly from teacher educators how to provide feedback, and there are no common standards regarding internships. The analysis of the results of this study with regard to the discourse on teacher education, feedback, and educational quality indicates that feedback in teacher education has a multidimensional effect.